Отдел социально-экономической географии

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Space of Russia and its transformation

Space of Russia and its transformation
The following research areas are included in this section: the structure of Russian space and its relation to the evolution of development, the specifics of Russia as a big country, symmetry and asymmetry of its space compared to other countries, its administrative division, alternating centralization and regionalization trends in development, special aspects of polyscale approach to studying Russia's space, the role of its cities, the morphology of space.

A.I.Treyvish. "City, region, country and the world. Geographer's vision on the development of Russia". Moscow: The new chronograph (Novy Hronograf), 2009, 369 pp.

A.I.Treyvish. Symmetry and asymmetry of the Geo-space and its role in the country studies. Problems of economic and political geography of foreign countries. Vol. 18. The territorial structure of the economy and society of the foreign world. Moscow — Smolensk: Oikumena, 2009, pp.7-23.

A.I.Treyvish. Russia among the giant countries. Problems of Public and Local Government. 2007. № 1. T. 1. pp. 141-158.

Treyvish A. Spatial inefficiency and the downfall of the Soviet Union. Reshaping Economic Geography. World development report - 2009. Washigton DC: The World Bank, 2009, pp. 90-91

Tikunov B. Treyvish A. The geographical dimension of countries and regions in twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Geography, Environment, Sustainability, 2008, № 1 (01), pp. 6-22

S.S.Artobolevsky, S.Ya.Baklanov, A.I.Treyvish. Space and the development of Russia: polyscale analysis. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Vestnik Rossiyskoy Akademii Nauk), Vol.79, № 2, Moscow, 2009, pp.101-112

V.N.Streletsky, Cyclicity in the evolution of socio-geographical space. Second conference Socratic readings in the field of geography (Sokraticheskie chteniya po geografii). Collected papers. Ed. V.A.Shuper. - Moscow: URAO Publishing, 2001. pp.59-72.

V.N.Streletsky. Kondratiev cycles in the economy. Anatomy of Crises Ed. V.M.Kotlyakov. Moscow: Nauka, 1999, pp.107-115.

The following areas are included: traits of contemporary crises and their impact on the space of Russia, features of the organization of the Russian socio-economic space at different scales during the crisis period of 1990-ies and during the recovery of 2000-ies, advantages and disadvantages of the Russian space in front of the new crisis of 2008-2010. The polarization of the Russian space, its regions, cities and rural areas, leading to the expansion of Russia's foreign, domestic and local peripheries.

T.G.Nefedova, A.I.Treyvish. Spatial scales and processes of crisis and development of Russia between crises. RAS Bulletin (Izvestia RAN), Geography series, 2009, № 4, pp. 7-16

In 2007, the statistics recorded the end of post-Soviet transformational crisis: the country recovered from the crisis in terms of GDP, i.e. 1990's production level has been reached. But this is not due to the production as is; service sector of the economy contributed largely to the index. Although the industry suffered in 1990-ies stronger than agriculture, later it grew faster. Both figures reached 83% of 1990' level by 2008, while investment hasn't reached even 60% by the time. Russia did not have enough time for complete recovery before the rise of the new global financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009. During the transitional period of the last 20 years spatial contrasts within Russia have intensified.
Fig. The share of regions in the national investment in fixed assets in 1990, 2006 and 2008. (Shown only for regions which account for more than 1%)
Fig. The share of regions in the national investment in fixed assets in 1990, 2006 and 2008. (Shown only for regions which account for more than 1%)
Fig. The share of regions in the national investment in fixed assets in 1990, 2006 and 2008. (Shown only for regions which account for more than 1%)
Fig. The share of regions in the national investment in fixed assets in 1990, 2006 and 2008. (Shown only for regions which account for more than 1%)
Fig. Forecasted adaptation models of Russian region to the crisis in 2009. Crisis hotspots (left, in red): metallurgical, oil and gas, financial.  Regions of contagion (right)
Fig. Forecasted adaptation models of Russian region to the crisis in 2009. Crisis hotspots (left, in red): metallurgical, oil and gas, financial. Regions of contagion (right)
T.G.Nefedova, A.I.Treyvish, J.Pallot. The "Crisis" Geography of Contemporary Russia. Eurasian Geography and Ecomonics, Vol. 51, № 2, 2010, rr.203-218 - in English.

T.G.Nefedova. The polarization of the space in Russia: areas of growth and "black holes". Economics of Contemporary Russia. Russian Academy of Sciences, Economy Section of Social Sciences Division, Moscow, 2009, № 1, pp.62-77

The contrasts within the Russian space are evident not only when regions are compared, but also, and more strongly, among cities and within regions. The lower the degree of development and population density of the territory, the stronger the influence of cities on the countryside. The influence of a city on its surrounding area largely depends on its size. Strong stratification of extra-urban space in Russia became possible due to the relatively sparse network of cities that form areas of denser population near them, of better infrastructure and of more efficient agriculture, which is especially apparent for Nechernozemye (non-black soil regions) and for eastern regions of the country. During 1990-ies and 2000-ies, contraction of settled territory and its concentration in neighborhood of the cities, have progressed, thus expanding the space of inner and outer periphery.
Years of crisis and reforms of the 1990-ies have shown that endogenous factors of extra-urban space structuring are arranged in Russia according to three factors. The factors form axes which are "north-south", "east-west" and "suburbia — periphery". They are sometimes more important than the political (capitalism or socialism) and economic (market or planned economy) shifts.
Fig. The density of rural population from the suburbs to the periphery of the RF regions, 1990 and 2009, persons. sq.km (left).

Fig. Milk yield per cow in the suburbs and on the periphery of Nechernozemye regions in 1990, 2000 and 2007. Kg. year (right
Fig. The density of rural population from the suburbs to the periphery of the RF regions, 1990 and 2009, persons. sq.km (left). Fig. Milk yield per cow in the suburbs and on the periphery of Nechernozemye regions in 1990, 2000 and 2007. Kg. year (right
Russian Periphery

Analysis of the Russian territory in terms of its distance from the main clusters of cities, of transport infrastructure development, of population density, results in classifying of about 70% of the territory as external periphery and about 15 more percent as an inner periphery. There exist models of economic adaptation for regions classified as earlier developed peripheral areas. These models will not stop the population decrease, elimination of large-scale agricultrure and contraction of developed areas, but increasing the focality of development they will save these territories from total abandonment.

T.G.Nefedova. Russian periphery as a socio-economic phenomenon. Regional studies (Regional'nye issledovaniya), Moscow, Smolensk State Uneversity, 2008, № 5 (20), pp.14-31

T.G.Nefedova. The polarization of urban and rural areas and the expansion of the Russian periphery. Regional development and regional policy in Russia during the transition. Moscow: Bauman MSTU Publishing, 2010.

T.G.Nefedova. To see the Russia. Domestic notes (Otechestvennye zapisky). Volume 32. Anatomy of the province, Moscow: 2006, pp. 41-60


Zoning of the Russian space, identifying methodological background of spatial approach to economy, of evolutionary approach to the economy development.

G.A.Privalovskaya, I.N.Volkova. Zoning as typology of the country's territory by the criteria of socio-economic situations. Regional Aspects of Development of Russia in the context of global environmental changes and climate. Moscow: Institute of Geography, RAS, 2001.

G.A.Privalovskaya, I.N.Volkova, D.N.Luhmanov. Peripheral zone of the European Central Russia: socio-economic profiling as a method for studying the differences in spatial development. Przevalsky and modern country studies. Smolensk, 1999,