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Urbanization and the system of cities in Russia

Urbanization and the system of cities in Russia


Books

G.M.Lappo . The geography of cities. Moscow: Gum.izd.tsentr VLADOS, 1997. - 475 p.

V.A.Shuper . Self-organization of urban settlements. Moscow: Russian Open University, 1995. 166.

Town & Country in European Russia: 100 years of change (Gorod i derevnya Evropeyskoy Rossii: 100 let peremen) . ed. T.G.Nefedova. , P.M.Polyan, A.I.Treyvish. Moscow: OGI, 2001

Articles

The role of cities in development of countries and regions

P.M.Polyan, T.I.Selivanova . Metropolitan areas of Russia and the new trends of their network (1989-2002). RAS Bulletin (Izvestia RAN), Geography series. 2007. 5. pp. 18-26

G.M.Lappo. P.M.Polyan . Science cities in Russia: yesterday's closed and half-closed today's points of growth. World of Russia (Mir Rossii). M, 2008. 1. pp. 20-49.

A.I.Treyvish . City, region, country and the world. chapter in the book "City, region, country and the world. Geographer's vision on the development of Russia". Moscow: The new chronograph (Novy Hronograf), 2009, pp. 248-345

A.I.Treyvish. A.V.Kurasov . World cities in a postindustrial economy: the terms, theoretical models and reality. World of Russia (Mir Rossii). M, 2009, 1, pp. 34-47

S.A.Tarkhov . Geographical types of capitals: problems of socio-economic and political geography of foreign countries. Vol. 17: The changing geography of the foreign world. MA - Smolensk: Moscow State University, 2007. pp. 123-145.


Urbanization in Russia in the twentieth century, especially contemporary processes of urbanization

G.M.Lappo. P.M.Polyan . The results of urbanization in Russia by the end of XX century. World of Russia (Mir Rossii). M, 1999, V. 8, 4. pp. 22-34.

T.G.Nefedova. , A.I.Treyvish . Russian urban system in the mirror of evolutionary theories of urban. Town & Country in European Russia: 100 years of change (Gorod i derevnya Evropeyskoy Rossii: 100 let peremen). Moscow: OGI, 2001, pp. 171-196

T.G.Nefedova. , A.I.Treyvish . The theory of "differential urbanization" and the hierarchy of cities in Russia at the turn of the 21-st. Problems of urbanization on the turn of the century (Problemy urbanizacii na rubezhe vekov). - Moscow: Moscow State University, 2002, pp.71-87

T.G.Nefedova. , A.I.Treyvish . Differential Urbanisation in Russia. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie. Journal of Economic and Social Geography. 2003. Vol 94, No 1 (in English)

According to the theory of differential urbanization, stage of urbanization and the readiness of society for desurbanisation are determined not only by population growth of towns and villages, but by the rate of immigration growth of cities of different sizes. In Russia, elapsing of the stages was complicated by the political cataclysms of the twentieth century, so the classical urbanization process had there three starts, instead of one, because it has been broken off by the revolution and wars, during which people were leaving cities for villages. By the end of 1980, Russian society has not yet finished the classical urbanization, although it was already in its later stages. The early 1990-ies are characterized by the outflow from the largest centers. Crisis, confusion, lack of food caused usual for Russian exodus from the city to the village. From this time on there is influx to rural areas, mainly from the former Soviet republics and the eastern parts of the country. By mid-1990 the positive migration balance of cities was restored. At the turn of the century crisis desurbanization ends, and urbanization again starts gaining momentum. There has been a flight not only from the countryside, but also from small towns, then. In 2005-2007 the attractiveness of medium and even small towns has been reducing, while big cities remained the most popular, and rural population outflow continued. Thus, urbanization in Russia is not yet complete, but it can be assumed that the country returns now to the situation of the late 1980's, when Russia was almost ready for the polarization reversal.

T.G.Nefedova. , A.I.Treyvish . Urban Russia: Somewhere in between?. Die Stadte Russlands im Wandel. Beitrage zur Regionalen Geographie, Bd. 57, Leipzig 2002, pp. 20-32 (in English)



Assessment of Russian cities

T.G.Nefedova. , A.I.Treyvish . Dynamics and state of the cities in the late twentieth century. Town & Country in European Russia: 100 years of change (Gorod i derevnya Evropeyskoy Rossii: 100 let peremen). Moscow: OGI, 2001, pp. 196-225

T.G.Nefedova. , A.I.Treyvish . Cities the leaders of modern regions: the formal and informal. Russia and its regions in the XX century: land, settlement pattern, migration (Rossiya i ee regiony v XX veke: territoriya, rasselenie, migracii), Ed. A. Glezer, P.M.Polyan. Moscow: OGI, 2005, pp. 281-307

T.G.Nefedova. , A.I.Treyvish . Les villes leaders: spécialisation et profils économiques , La Russie, D. Eckert (éd.), Paris, Hachette, coll. Recueils pour les concours, pp. 67-92, 2007(in French)


T.G.Nefedova. , A.I.Treyvish . Cities and rural areas: status and relation in the space of Russia, Regional studies (Regional'nye issledovaniya), Smolensk State. University, 2010, 2

See also
Open economy www.opec.ru/1244488.html T.G.Nefedova, A.I.Treyvish. There is much to fall

Condition of cities is dependent most heavily on their size, status, functions and geographic location. The use of the methodology specially developed by T.G.Nefedova and A.I.Treyvish for assessing the state of the cities have shown, first of all, that the larger the city the more successful it is. Big cities have lower unemployment, better job opportunities, more active small business environment, and higher human capital, because they gather the best human resources from adjacent regions or even from all over the country. The smaller the city, the greater the likelihood of its socio-economic depression, which is associated with crisis or with the lack of large enterprises. About 60% of all Russian small towns (having less than 50 thousand inhabitants) were assessed as of low-performance, although compared with the beginning of 2000-ies., their condition has improved somewhat.


Suburbs of large urban centers

A.G.Makhrova, T.G.Nefedova. , A.I.Treyvish. Moscow Region Today and Tomorrow (Moskovskaja oblast' segodnja i zavtra). Moscow: The new chronograph (Novy Hronograf), 2008. 344.

G.V.Ioffe, T.G.Nefedova. The Environs of Russian Cities, Edwin Mellin Press, USA, 2000, 236 pp (in English)

G.V.Ioffe, T.G.Nefedova . The Environs of Russian Cities: A Case Study of Moscow. Russian Views of Transition in the Rural Sector, The World Bank, Washington, USA, 2000, pp.145-167 (in English)